Flipped Lesson: The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (Junior or Senior year of High School)

Unit: Jim Crow Era.

Essential Question: How could the racist and discriminating Jim Crow system rise in the United States after the Emancipation?

 

Standards To Be Addressed (ISTE – NETS-S)

Standard How the Standard is Addressed
1a) Promote, support, and model creativeand innovative thinking and inventiveness. The students have to use their learnt knowledge writing an autobiography of a black tenant farmer. Not only is their creative writing skill needed, but also their ability to simulate thoughts of a person in a different time period and socio-historical background.
1b) Engage students in exploring real-world issuesand solving authentic problems using digital toolsand resources Discrimination is an never-ending issue in the most societies of the 21st century, even the most developed. The warm-up game puts students in the position of feeling the inhumanity of racism to a certain degree in a secured space. Afterwards, they use digital resources to understand how such a system as Jim Crow could establish in the United States, even supported by the Supreme Court.
2a) Design or adapt relevant learning experiences thatincorporate digital tools and resources to promotestudent learning and creativity. New Technology is used in the different groups to promote student learning in various ways. One group is working with Prezi, the second one is using an interactive PBS-site for their research and presentation, and the last one analyzes a film clip using one of the most famous archives of the internet and has to research on their own for further information.

Standards To Be Addressed 

Standard How the Standard is Addressed
8.3.9.A: Compare the role groups and individuals played in the social, political, cultural, and economic development of the U.S. The role of African Americans during the Jim Crow era in the United States is the focal point of this lesson. The discrimination against African American coined the social, political and cultural history of the United States during the 20th century.
8.3.9.C:  Analyze how continuity and change have impacted the United States. The “Negro question” mirrors the socio-historical and political attitude of the United States. The lesson covers the time period from Restoration towards the Jim Crow Era displaying the several changes and few continuities regarding this topic.
8.3.9.D: Interpret how conflictand cooperation among groups and organizations have impacted the growth and development of the U.S. The Supreme Court decision “Plessy vs Ferguson” is one of the most important decisions regarding segregation and paved the way for racism and discrimination for more than half a century.

 

 

Video Teaching Strategy Question (Content-oriented, focus of the flip video)How did the Jim Crow laws rise in the United States after Emancipation?
In-Class Teaching Strategy Question #1(Content or skill-oriented)Why did the “separate, but equal” idea not work as the Supreme Court suggested?
In-Class Teaching Strategy Question #2 (Content or skill-oriented)Which other factors legally, socially or historically besides Plessy v. Ferguson supported the racist Jim Crow system?
In-Class Teaching Strategy Question #3 (Content or skill-oriented)Which stereotypes lead to the “Negrophobia” in the United States?

Video Plan (This portion should be completed if you are making your own video)

Core content question addressed by video:How did the Jim Crow laws rise in the United States after Emancipation?
Introduction – Something interesting/funny/strange that generates interest and leads into video content:Part of the speech “I have a dream” by Martin Luther King / Abraham Lincoln about white supremacy in Strange Career
Content item: ReconstructionAccompanying visuals: Pictures, quotes and explaining texts.
Content item:  Plessy v. Ferguson.Accompanying visuals: Pictures and explaining texts.
Content item:  Brown v Board of educationAccompanying visuals: Pictures and explaining texts.
Conclusion (A hook to summarize this content): The emergence and development of the Jim Crow era is very complex and cannot be reduced to merely a substitute for slavery. It was different in nature and took several unexpected turns even for students who have the possibility to look on history in the retrospective.

 

Video Address URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ht2kRHqtm7s&feature=youtu.be
Resources used (use APA format):Arberg, K (n.d.). Photographs from the Supreme Court Collection. In Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.supremecourt.gov/about/photo10.aspxArberg, K (n.d.). Photographs from the Supreme Court Collection. In Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.supremecourt.gov/about/photo2.aspxChancellor, C. (February 24, 2012). Voter Suppression Battle Just the Latest Fight to Protect the Vote. In Center for American Progress. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2012/02/24/11076/voter-suppression-battle-just-the-latest-fight-to-protect-the-vote/Culliton, J. (August 28, 1963). Martin Luther King – I Have A Dream. In Internet Archive. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://archive.org/details/MartinLutherKing-IHaveADreamEric Foner and Olivia Mahoney (2003).  Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction. In America’s Reconstruction: People and Politics after the Civil War. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_20.htmlEric Foner and Olivia Mahoney (2003). Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction. In America’s Reconstruction: People and Politics after the Civil War. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_06.html

Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney (2003). Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction. In America’s Reconstruction: People and Politics after the Civil War. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_18.html

 Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney (2003). Rights and Power: The Politics of Reconstruction. In America’s Reconstruction: People and Politics after the Civil War. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/exhibits/reconstruction/section4/section4_19.html

Fuller, J. (n.d.). How the Civil Rights Movement Worked. In  HowStuffworks. Retrieved from October 14, 2012, from http://history.howstuffworks.com/historical-events/civil-rights-movement4.htm

Journal of American History (n.d.). March 2003, Vol. 88, No. 4. In Journal of American History. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.journalofamericanhistory.org/issues/884/

Leffler, W. K. (June 11, 1963). Governor George Wallace attempting to block integration at the University of Alabama. In Library of Congress. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.04294/

Leffler, W. K. (June 11, 1963). Vivian Malone entering Foster Auditorium to register for classes at the University of Alabama. In Library of Congress. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/ppmsca.05542/

Office of the Clerk.(n.d.). The Civil Rights Act of 1964. In Office of the Clerk: U.S. House of Represantives.  Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://artandhistory.house.gov/highlights.aspx?action=view&intID=85

Public Broadcasting Service (2002). Civil Rights Act (1875). In The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_civil.html

Public Broadcasting Service (December 2006). Supreme Court History: Expanding Civil Rights. In  The Supreme Court. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/rights/landmark_brown.html

Public Broadcasting Service (December, 2006). Supreme Court History: The First Hundred Years. In  The Supreme Court. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/supremecourt/antebellum/sources.html

The National Archives & Records Administration (n.d.). “I Have A Dream”, Speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. In Featured Documents. Retrieved October 13, 2012, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/mlk_speech/index.html

The National Archives (n.d.). A Change is gonna come. In Documented Rights. Retrieved October 13,2012, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section4/detail/washington-march1.html

The National Archives (n.d.). A Change is gonna come. In Documented Rights. Retrieved October 13,2012, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section4/detail/washington-march2.html

The National Archives (n.d.). A Change is gonna come. In Documented Rights. Retrieved October 13,2012, from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section4/detail/mlk.html

The National Archives (n.d.). Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). In 100 Milestone Documents. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=52

Woodward C. V. (2002). The Strange Career of Jim Crow (3rd ed.)New York: Oxford University Press

 

Class Plan

Activating Strategy / Warm-up: The students will be divided in two groups made visible by Buttons labeling them either “black” or “white”. The “white” group will consist only of 3-4 students, who are allowed to be on facebook, watch youtube clips and will be provided with food and drinks. Furthermore, they are allowed to move freely in the classroom. The “black” group consists of the remaining students and is only allowed to move in a very small part of the classroom. Further, they are not allowed to enjoy the privileges of the first group (5-10 minutes).

Predicted Student Questions / Answers

Question: Why did the Supreme Court rule in the favor of Plessy v. Ferguson?
Answer:  The Supreme Court based their decision on the dominating ideology of white supremacy. They assumed that African Americans and white Americans are essentially different and, therefore, have to be separated, but on equal terms hence the phrase “separate, but equal” established. History will prove them in both terms wrong.
Question:  How can the white attitude towards African American switch so extremely from the time of Reconstruction to Redemption?
Answer: Many aspects have to be taken into consideration to answer this question. Even nowadays scholars are arguing about this fundamental issue. You will answer this question in your upcoming assessments in groups.
Question: Who are Plessy and Ferguson?
Answer: It is not important who these persons are, but that “Plessy v. Ferguson” is a case ruled by the Supreme Court, which made racial segregation legal.

 

Teaching Strategies: Students are working on each assessment in small groups. Afterwards, they form second groups where each member was in a different group before. In these second groups they explain their results each other, so every student knows about every assessment (Jigsaw-puzzle).

Teaching strategy question:Why did the “separate, but equal” idea not work as the Supreme Court suggested?
Teaching strategy:The students get a text about “white supremacy” (Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow) and have to summarize it. Furthermore, they have to explain how both ideas contradict each other. ( Imperialism, Social-Darwinism)
Accommodations:Students receive a graphic organizer helping them to understand the text.
Assessment:Students make a Prezi about their results.
Teaching strategy question:Which other factors legally, socially or historically besides Plessy v. Ferguson supported the racist Jim Crow system?
Teaching strategy:Students use the time line of segregation on the website “http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/segregation.html” to summarize the most important steps in establishing the Jim Crow system.
Accommodations:
Students receive a paper suggesting events in the time line which students should include in their presentation.
Assessment:Students have to make a presentation using the time line on a whiteboard/ projection and tell the rest of class what the most important steps were.
Teaching strategy question:Which stereotypes lead to the “Negrophobia” in the United States?
Teaching strategy:Watch the short clip of “The Birth of a Nation” (http://archive.org/details/TheBirthofaNation1080p) and identify themes of the “Old South”, “Lost Cause” or gender stereotypes. The students are allowed to use the internet to search for further information, but have to follow the rules of academic standards established in class beforehand.
Accommodations:Students receive a paper suggesting specific frames and the corresponding themes they have to look out for.
Assessment:Students show the class frames to show and explain their results.

 

Summarizing Strategy / Small Group Activity / Project:  Students have to write an autobiography about a black tenant farmer during the period from Reconstruction until Plessy vs Ferguson including the aspects they have learnt in class (see All God’s Danger)

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